I find myself substituting ingredients all the time. Sometimes it's to make a recipe more healthy, and sometimes it's to make do with something I don't have. I thought I would start a list here of the things I do, and maybe you have some suggestions too. It will not only help me keep my list all in one place (instead of on 30 post-its!), but it might help you get some ideas too.
Baking powder (Rule of thumb: 1tsp/1cup flour)
1 tsp= 1/4 tsp baking soda + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar + 1/4 tsp cornstarch
Baking Soda (Rule of thumb: 1/4 tsp /1cup flour)
1/2 tsp =2 tsp baking powder
1cup= 1 cup crackers, cereal, oats, potato chips
Banana can be subbed measure for measure...your food will taste like banana though, so be careful!
1 cup butter = 1 cup shortening
3Tbl unsweetened cocoa powder + 1 Tbl oil
Cocoa Powder, Dutch Process:
3Tbl= 3Tbl cocoa powder + 1/8 tsp baking soda
Cornstarch (for thickening)
1Tbl = 2 Tbl flour
Cream, Half &Half
1 cup = 2 Tbl melted butter + enough milk to make 1 cup
1 cup= 1 cup plain yogurt
1 egg = 1 Tbl milled flaxseed + 3 Tbl water
1 cup = 1 cup all purpose flour
1 cup = 1 cup AP flour + 2Tbl cornstarch
Flour, White to Whole Wheat:
Take out 2 Tbl whole wheat flour per cup substituted (1c white= 1c-2Tbl whole wheat) If using for a yeast recipe, be sure to add 2 tsp vital wheat gluten/cup whole wheat flour used
1 Tbl chopped fresh = 1 tsp dried
1 tsp = 1/2 tsp lemon extract
1 cup = 1 cup sour cream or plain yogurt
1 cup = 1 Tbl vinegar + enough milk to make 1 cup ---let stand 5 minutes
1Tbl oil = 3 Tbl milled flaxseed
applesauce or fruit puree can be subbed for up to half the oil in a recipe (ie: 1 cup oil = 1/2 cup applesauce + 1/2 cup oil)
1 cup chopped = 1/4 cup dried minced or 1/4 cup powdered onion
1 cup = 1 cup butter
honey(or agave, or molasses, or corn syrup) can be subbed measure for measure up to 1/2 cup. Over 1/2 cup, use 2/3-3/4 the amount of sugar called for since honey is sweeter. Reduce other liquids by 1/4 cup for each cup of honey used, add 1/2 tsp baking soda/cup honey used, and lower oven temp.
1 cup sugar = 3/4 cup honey (reduce other liquid by 1/4cup/cup honey used, add pinch of baking soda to neutralize acidity, lower oven temp by 25* to avoid overbrowning)
1 bean = 2-3 tsp pure vanilla extract
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